March in D.C.

On March 24th of 2018 (over a week ago as I finish this post), I rode down in a bus to the Capitol with several other students to take part in the March for Our Lives.

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A random photo I took before my iPhone died (damn battery)

It was just last February that the Stoneman Douglas shooting in Parkland, Florida occurred, just one of many shootings to occur since the Massacre at Columbine shocked the nation. Every time we have had gun violence hit the media–be it at a school, a theater, or a church–there was strong request for change, for regulations on who can and who can’t use guns. The people in power have offered there sympathies to the bereaved, but time and time again have been either unable or unwilling to bring about strong reform.

After Columbine, Sandy Hook, Orlando, Vegas, and several other such tragedies, Parkland was basically the last straw; the Stoneman Douglas students got mobilized.

The crowd that day contained hundreds of thousands of people, loudly chanting for change and reparation. While otherwise a chilly day, the collective heat of the crowds was enough to make the air shimmer. Every now and again as we stood, some individuals would start a chant and it would rip like a tsunami right across the bulk of the gathered masses.

Between performances by various celebrities, survivors and advocates came up onstage and decried the violence they had been forced to endure, the NRA for stonewalling gun-control efforts, and the politicians who have allowed the violence to go on for this long.

Many relevant things were said during the main rally, most of which I can only barely recall through the haze of strong emotion (as well as due to getting a sunburn; it was very bright that day).

Stoneman Douglas survivors such as Emma Gonzales and David Hoggs gave us heartfelt and charged speeches regarding the trauma of surviving an event no student should ever have to endure, while emphasizing the need for change and the importance of our making ourselves heard. Gonzales’s speech in particular was powerful for the short silent break in it, roughly the same length of time as the six minutes in which the Parkland shooter killed its victims.

A portion of the crowd (either out of cluelessness or discomfort) attempted to fill the silence with chants. It was kind of disrespectful; I hope they weren’t too loud on the news coverage.

Naomi Wadler, a young african-american girl from Virginia, also spoke to remind us of the continued violence in minority communities that children like her have to endure, as did guest speakers Edna Chavez from Los Angeles and Trevon Bosley of Chicago, cities where people of color in poorer communities have come to live with everyday urban gun violence out on the street, where such violence has been a fact of life for a long while. Both Chavez and Bosley lost siblings to violence, and have seen it out and around in their neighborhood. Minority and impoverished communities are swarming in death and violence that goes unreported by the media, and I am glad to see that this rally included them as well.

My personal highlight for the event was when Yolanda King, the young granddaughter of Martin Luther King Jr., came up on the stage and said her peace. As her assassinated grandfather dreamed of freedom from inequality, so she too stated she dreams that we would no more experience tragedy administered by random acts of gun violence.

There was plenty more that was said, plenty more that was expressed. The survivors of other shootings and urban violence came up and expressed support and commitment, there were tells and shouts and much expression, and so much hope that we could finally get something of substance to be accomplished.


There are those who oppose the advocation for gun legislature, the members of the NRA being the most influential (and the ones who got the loudest boos).

Despite what the button on my lapel might have said, I do not consider myself literal “anti-gun”. As someone who hunts game in the fall, I don’t personally have a problem with owning and knowing how to properly use a firearm. However, I do not see any reason why we should not regulate the sale and ownership of guns, especially the almost military-grade “sports” rifle such as the AR-15 often favored by public shooters.

Seriously, why do civilians need automatic or semiautomatic weaponry (which can be modified to be fully automatic)? They are practically the same thing that active duty soldiers use, and they are required to be fully trained and disciplined before they can use those types of gun in combat. An automatic weapon is not typically designed to be a toy nor a hunting rifle; it is designed to kill or maim as many PEOPLE as possible. And anyone can buy one in more states than not without any sort of background check or mental health evaluation. I mean, if the person holding the weapon is the problem rather than the weapon itself, then should we not be okay with refusing to let the problem has access to weapons?

While the AR15 is not an assault rifle ( is referred to as a modern sports rifle by various entities in the business), it is legally an assault weapon and is a favorite choice for mass shootings.

An 18 year old kid can’t drink beer, and they need to pass a crap ton of tests and practice before they can have a license, yet they are perfectly able to walk into a store or to the back of a white van and pick up an assault weapon for just the right amount of CASH.

For the love of God, we have limits on the First Amendment to prevent the use of free speech to harm (e.g. a person can be arrested if they shout “Fire!” into a crowded room for the sole purpose of causing panic), why not modify the Second Amendment to better work in the modern age? Sure, it won’t stop kids and crooks from being able to get guns illegally, but it will make it harder for disturbed individuals to access weapons in general (plus, any sort of background evaluation ought to raise red flags that would draw attention upon any suspicious character).

People talk about arming school teachers to better defend their students, and some schools have started perform lockdown drills with officers shooting blank rifles due to new safety regulations. There is nothing here about preventing the likelihood of a shooting occurring, just arming stressed-out and untrained civilians while teaching children that death and violence are things to which they should become accustomed.

Call me crazy, but I think a school should be a safe zone where we concentrate on learning and growing without wondering which of our classmates may one day decide to murder us (or which one of our students we might have to execute in the future).

The majority of Generation Z is has reached or is reaching voting age, and come this November those who have registered will have the power to vote out those who oppose change, whose indecision would allow the continued existence of policies and practices that allow such tragedies to continue.


On a related note, let us return to the topic of minority communities. To the day, black and hispanic people in this nation still often get the short end of the stick. Their schools are underfunded, their families often can’t make ends meet, and the people in charge are often either indifferent or hostile. The minority communities experience the largest amount of gun violence in the United States, yet they also receive the least amount of news coverage and reaction compared to predominately well-to-do white communities.

The #BlackLivesMatter movement started in 2014 in response in part to Michael Brown’s death (shot a total of 12 times by an allegedly  threatened Officer Darren Wilson, who was later cleared of charges), and has been continuing steadily. It has not been receiving the same amount of recognition and support as the #NeverAgain movement started by Emma Gonzales and the Parkland survivors. In fact, it has been classified as an extremist organization by the FBI (very same agency that was AT LEAST indirectly complicit to the assassination of Martin Luther King jr.) simply because they are protesting (peacefully, I might add) and unfair justice system. Apparently the FBI has pinned unrelated violent protests by individual black individuals as something everyone connected to the movement would sanction or commit. In the mean time, people of color still continue to leave in general poor, stressful, and unsafe conditions.

Because the Parkland shooting involved a rather well-to-do, predominantly white community, there was a lot more public outrage concerning the event. As a result, it was school shootings that got most of the coverage in debate over gun safety.

Incidentally, the Parkland Shooter (a 17 year old who definitely knew what he was doing) was often talked about as being a troubled child and bullying victim (the guy had a history of rage and brutality, and there were people at the school who tried to befriend him in spite of it) who is being kept safe in protective custody, whereas black boys get shot, beaten, and killed by dumbass officers who immediately assume they’re “threatening” them.

As I believe Edna Chavez described in her speech, the officers aren’t any help to the community because they are likely to profile and arrest the children of color rather than protect and aid them. I don’t care that not all officers are like that, it’s still a problem that there are at least a small crowd of them THAT ARE.

I live in a rural community, so this has always been a distant problem to me. None the less, I recognize the urban violence that occurs among the less well off and marginalized demographics is just as relevant a problem to the American people as the growing tendency we have towards experiencing school shootings. Circumstances like these should not be normal for anyone, people should not have to experience the trauma of live-or-death situations in their everyday lives, let alone live in neighborhoods that are practically war zones.

In the poor urban communities, people have no aid, no money, no jobs, and they often turn to crime and violence out of desperation and fear. They don’t use assault weapons (except for the bigger gangs) but the common pistol can just as easily kill you as any other projectile weapon. Here, the problem is definitely lack of care for those of us leaving poverty. When things happen to people of color in poverty (or really poor people in general), it tends to be seen as not a concern of the nation as a whole but just of that specific demographic.

There is a lot more about marginalized poor communities besides urban violence of which I am opinionated or infuriated, especially my inability to do shit about it, but that can be saved for later actions.

Anyway, the movement started by the Parkland crowd have an agenda I support and think others ought to as well, and people such as #BlackLivesMatter and other advocates for improving life in marginalized communities need the support too. I think it is important that those who can change things actually goddamn improve things. Granted, I can’t know everything about anything, and there will always be stuff of which I am incorrect, but I am damn well sure that a safer, kinder America is one I want to live in.

In the mean time, I need to get back to sorting out my thesis project (and probably go to bed at some point, it’s already past midnight where I am). Goodnight.

 

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Reflecting on Hawking

March 14th, Einstein’s birthday, has come to be known Pi Day, the holiday that (for the most part) celebrates mathematics and mathematicians (as well as math-heavy sciences). It was also the day we found out that theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking had passed away, at the age of 76.

Along with Tyson and Sagan, Hawking was one of the celebrities of the physicist and cosmologist communities, being probably one of the most brilliant minds over to gain recognition in recent history. During his life theorized on the laws by which Blackholes operate, the formation of the expanding Universe and how it might eventually end, the potential existence of Multiverse Theory, and the search for a Theory of Everything that would unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory (our current understandings concerning both still have contradictions that need to be reconciled)

He has had both a form of radiation (emitted by so-called Blackholes) and a form of energy (as a possible definition of mass in a general relativity equation).

Hawking is also notable for writing A Brief History of Time—which became an international bestseller—as well as a couple other books about physics and cosmology, all of which helped him to earn him pop culture notability comparable to that of Albert Einstein.

He recently had a memoir published, an autobiographical work titled My Brief History that looks back over his life as a scientist, a student, a husband, and a father (a slightly dramatized account of his early life can be seen in the 2014 biopic The Theory of Everything). He and his daughter Lucy also wrote several children’s books about the cosmic adventures and explorations of two kids named George and Annie.

A full list of works written by Hawking can be found on his official website, as well as on Amazon.

Doctor Hawking had a rare early-onset form of slowly progressing form of Motor Neurone Disease known as ALS that manifested during his twenties and slowly rendered him unable to make use of his voluntary muscles. It is was expected to kill him within three years after diagnosis, yet obviously he persisted well into his seventies. Eventually it took away his voluntary motion and ability to speak (at which point he ended up getting his trademark american-accented robotic voice). I won’t say he was trapped, because his mind was still sharp, and with his mind he was free to explore the Universe and its mysteries. If he hadn’t had ALS, it is likely that he could never have become the notable man he was, as his diagnosis lead to him developing a strong sense of purpose (though his first marriage might have lasted longer without the personal strain).

Besides his publications and theoretical work, Hawking was a notable role model and advocated for the disabled, a mantle he accepted sometime around the 90s. To be disabled is to often be marginalized or treated as a burden; through Hawking one can learn that a debilitating condition does not have to prevent one from seeking out and achieving great things. He was a staunch acknowledger of the existence of climate change, and has stated that the changes happening on Earth now are comparable to the developments that lead to Venus becoming the hothouse it is. On a related note, he believed that the future of humanity was dependent on going into space and colonizing other worlds, because our own planet was getting too used and crowded to support us for much longer.

Among his peers and colleges he also was known for being quick witted and always up to wager on potential scientific discoveries (like betting against the identity of Cygnus X-1 as a blackhole; Kip Thorne won).

As a celebrity, his statements and actions occasionally caused controversy. Like a lot of older men, he could be sexist, if not misogynistic. He was also an outspoken atheist, which of course drew ire from the religious crowd. Whereas religious belief sees the world as existing under authority, Hawking saw the world as existing under observable and understandable laws. If something seemed unexplainable, it was because we had yet to discover the laws behind it. As an extension of his atheism, he did not believe in any afterlife either; the human brain is a complex organic computer that just shuts down when the components fail.

He was also the only person to play themselves in a Star Trek series, during an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, where Data the android plays poker against (technically a hologram of) him, Isaac Newton (played by an actor), and Albert Einstein (also played by an actor). Other shows in which he appeared as himself include The Big Bang Theory and The Simpsons. Neat.

Doctor Hawking’s funeral service occurred late last March on the 31st. His cremated remains are to be buried at Westminster Abbey alongside fellow notable Brits Sir Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin.

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A drawing depicting a free mind exploring the far reaches of the cosmos

While he had his flaws as a person, Stephen Hawking was a brilliant human being who had a significant influence on human society. Many people were inspired by him in some way to get into the sciences, and many of the people who studied under him went on to be notable physicists as well.

While Hawking desired to one day visit outer space (don’t we all?), he is now dead and commercial space flight has still yet to come into existent. There are still quite a few economic and political barriers that would allow us the means to leave the planet, let alone visit others.

While some will deny it to their heart’s content, we are rapidly changing our planet and not for the better. There are ways that we can (and should) repair it, but even then there will still come a time in the future when we may have to look to the stars to sustain our species. I hope I live long enough to see a person set foot on Mars (or at least the moon again), but I would happily settle for widespread environmental sustainment and regrowth. At the moment, this is the only planet we’ve got.

In the mean time, there’s still plenty of hypotheses to test and mysteries to explore.

Bananas

Ever here of the Gros Michel Banana? As known colloquially as the Big Mike, it was primarily grown in South East Asia, become a common export to Europe and America during the 1800’s, and was probably the most commonly sold breed of banana in the west up until the 1950s. Then the Panama disease descended upon the plantations, and the monocrop industry was basically shut down permanently. They’re still grown in some tropical areas, just no longer on a global industrial scale.

The banana most people around the world get as an export is the Cavendish. This banana is similar in appearance to the Gros Michel, but is noticeably thinner and having a different ripening pattern. It also has less flavor; the average Gros Michel is reported to be much sweeter, more consistently creamy, and to have a less noticeable seed area. It was also more robust and physically suited for long distance travel.

Of course, the Gros Michel could not withstand the fungal infection known as Panama disease, which rendered it all but extinct. The blander and less hardy Cavendish was more resistant to the disease, so it rose in prominence.

However, it’s possible that we will have to soon find a substitute for our current variety of banana as well. According to reports from within the next two decades, a new viral form of Panama disease has manifested that is deadly to the Cavendish variety. The problem with bananas is that they are breed and reproduced via monocultural cloning, so there’s not a lot of genetic diversity, and anything that can kill one plant will likely kill every other.

In 2008, Dan Koeppel suggested that we “say goodbye” to the banana, recognize that it is an exotic food product that always had the potential of “slipping” out of our grasp.

I heard somewhere that there are plans to genetically engineer both Cavendish and surviving strands of Gros Michel to be more disease resistant. I guess we’ll see how that turns out. Perhaps I should do as Koeppel suggests and learn to live without bananas and focus more on products that can be grown or made close to home.

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When Captain America got frozen during the Second World War, the “Big Mike” was still the most commonly eaten banana in America. I wonder how his first exposure to the Cavendish went? From his point of view, it probably seemed that this new future world is so strange that even the bananas were wrong.

Anyway, speaking of Marvel characters, the Black Panther movie is coming out this upcoming Thursday (well, the Thursday after this was posted at any rate.

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Sources:

Gros Michel: The Lost Banana your Grandfather Loved

Your Favorite Banana is Facing Extinction

Yes, We Will Have No Bananas – New York Times

 

February So Far

It is currently February Tenth, just four days before the post-Catholic Western World goes about celebrating love, infatuation, and all that crap. I recently looked up Saint Valentine just to see what he was all about. There’s not much reliable information, just that he was martyred and buried someplace near Rome, and that he’d allegedly been conducting illegal Christian marriages in the Empire. Also, there may have been some other saints with a name derived from “Valentinus” as well. Traditionally, the day of Saint Valentine was celebrated with a feast, as was that of other martyred saints with a designated day of remembrance.

I don’t plan on doing anything special for the holiday this year. Maybe next year.

February also happens to be Black History Month, a time when the often ignored stories, struggles, and historical perspectives get to be brought to the fore. Per usual, the student organizations have been providing some interesting show-casings to go with the month.

Just this last week we had the 2016 documentary I Am Not Your Negro showing in the art building auditorium. Based on an unfinished manuscript by writer and social critic James Baldwin, the film is a deep and powerful look back on the complexities and struggles surrounding the Civil Rights movement, as seen by someone who was there and experienced it. It is a very illuminating film, and Baldwins observations and understandings are still very applicable to (if not eerily predicative of) the current state of American society.

We’ve also had screenings of other films such as Black Girl, a 1966 french film about a young woman from Senegal who moves to France to work as maid for this wealthy upper-middle class family. She expects to experience the adventure and wonder of living in this new, exotic land, and is quickly disappointed with the reality of being some well-off family’s maid. While I won’t give away the ending exactly, I will caution that it isn’t a happy one.

Yet another film that stuck with me was a documentary called Broken On All Sides, a film that covers the problem of overcrowding in prisons such as those in the Philadelphia county jail system, as well as the broader problems in the criminal justice system that have resulted in such mass incarcerations. It covers the problems with discretion of law enforcers that lead to more arrests of nonwhite people, the use of crowded prisons to store people AWAITING trial alongside those already convicted, and the tendency of ex-cons to be legally discriminated against in a manner not-unlike that of the Jim Crow era.

There was also a pre-release showing of the horror film Get Out that I was unable to make due to studio work. I think I might try to catch it in the theater (once the actual theatrical release comes around), if I can find the time for it.

Speaking of the theater, BLACK PANTHER IS COMING OUT THIS THURSDAY!!! Don’t know what else might be happening that day, but I’m definitely looking forward to it.

Black Panther ink drawing
Black Panther fan art by yours truly

Geminids Meteor Shower

This year, the Geminid Meteor Shower will be visible from nearly all parts of the globe in the late hours of tonight, Dec. 13, and the wee hours of tomorrow, Dec. 14. If the night sky is clear tonight where you live, then it ought to be quite the sight to see. Incidentally, it’s asteroid parent body will be getting pretty close to the planet as well.

The Geminid Shower gets its name from the Gemini constellation, from which the meteors seem to originate when observed streaking across the night sky throughout history. Unlike most meteor showers, the Geminids do not originate with a comet. In the late 20th Century, it was found that the parent body of the Geminid meteors was an asteroid currently designated as 3200 Phaethon, which happens to leave a trail of dust and debris in its orbit that happens to intersect the orbital path of the Earth.

It is not known for sure how 3200 Phaethon got its particle trail (but the bottom-most link has some possible explanations), but apparently their showering on Earth is a relatively recent development (Jupiter’s gravity well helped twist it our way), with the first recorded reports occurring in the 17th century. It was also apparently a lot less intense then than it is now.

While the asteroid dust will burn up prettily in the atmosphere, none of the particles are probably big enough to produce meteorites, so nobody has to worry about their heads getting hit by space rocks. #200 Phaethon isn’t likely to crash into us either (but might come close enough to view with a telescope!).

 

Meteor Showers Online – Geminids

Geminid Meteor Shower: Dust from an Asteroid

 

P.S. Sorry to be a downer, but just a reminder that tomorrow (December 14, 2017) there will be that in house vote on whether or not the FCC should repel its rulings on Net Neutrality, which currently limit service providers from blocking or slowing down access to the web unless consumers pay for premiums.

 

Net Neutrality: Jeopardy Approachs

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As a denizen of the internet, I am very much fond of the existence of Net Neutrality. I very much like that I can that some company is not controlling what sites I can and cannot access, that there are no extreme limitations in my country on what I can learn from the greater web and with whom I can share it, that those who provide me with internet are not actively censoring what websites I can access (I could probably do with less spying, but that’s not why I’m irked today).

For the most part, the point of Net Neutrality is that companies should not have undue control over your internet usages and access. Sure, a company can supply you with faster access for a fee, but if allowed too much control they can actively block or or manipulate the sort of websites you are able to visit or discover.

In 2015, after years of debating, advocating, and denied proposals, the Federal Communications Commission adopted a set of rules that would allow for strong and sustainable upholding of Net Neutrality (second link down from top). In the past any such development was often blocked by companies such as IBM and Verizon, who apparently see it as detrimental to businesses that deal in broadband internet access. There has also been argument in the recent past that such regulations prevent progress of internet technology by discouraging competition on the marketplace between internet service providers.

None the less, we did have regulations put in place that treat the internet as a utility and therefore something that to which everyone deserves as equal as possible access.

It was announce back in November that on December 14th of 2017 that Congress is going to be voting on a proposal by the FCC chairman Ajit Pai to repel the Commission’s current policy regarding Net Neutrality in the United States. Perhaps it could allow for an internet-provider free market, but it would definitely upon up greater risk for companies like Verizon gaining a stifling monopoly, crushing hard on startups and entrepreneurs.

Faulty or not, the concept of Net Neutrality is meant to protect our human rights in the digital world and preventing the massive corporations from throttling and stifling websites and services that don’t benefit their agendas.

Want to express support for Net Neutrality? You can start here.

 

 

Sources

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/11/21/the-fcc-has-unveiled-its-plan-to-rollback-its-net-neutrality-rules/?utm_term=.da055de993ab

http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2015/db0226/DOC-332260A1.pdf

http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2017/db1204/DOC-348056A1.pdf

https://www.npr.org/2017/11/25/566438811/whats-next-for-net-neutrality

 

Procrastination

This started out as a rough draft about study habits (especially bad ones) during finals week back in May of 2017. Due to the weariness of the coinciding studies and final projects, I put it off. And put it off. And then a summer’s worth of craziness came and went, and this unfinished blog post slipped almost completely out of mind.

Therefore, I hastily reworked this musing on studying into one about procrastination:

Humans will procrastinate on various things for various reasons. Perhaps it is a boring assignment, perhaps it there is enough time that it does not need to be started right away, or perhaps they think something else requires their attention more. I think we all know about rationalizing a decision; question is, where does the underlying cause of that decision come from?

The Evolutionary and Biological Perspectives of Psychology focus on the possible causes of behavior rooted in genetics. We know that personality develops from a basic temperament that is probably rooted in genetics, and any behavior patterns we have that are genetic in origin are obviously derived from some behavior that was advantageous to survival. In fact, a lot of behaviors that are counterproductive in modern day humans can be easily viewed as genetic predispositions gone wrong (for instance, paranoia is probably advantageous for an environment full of predators, while an addiction to sweet and fatty food is probably due to the fact that such foods were both very rare for are ancestors and contained more nourishment than grain or seeds alone).

Perhaps procrastination is derived from a genetic predisposition that allowed for the conservation of energy. Perhaps this same genetic factor is basal for being able to think ahead and prioritize a hierarchy of tasks.  It is probably the former, since studies show that levels of mental difficulty for a task happen to have an actual intrinsic cost, which is partially why we prefer easy tasks to hard ones.

However, genetic predispositions don’t exist in isolation. The field of epigenetics shows that genetic information can be activated or deactivated depending on environmental factors (for example, the child of two tall parents may not grow a lot if he or she does not received enough nutrients). Also, predispositions aside, a lot of personality and behavioral tendencies are gained from interacting with the environment. If someone does something a certain way, it is because they learned over the course of their life that it was acceptable to do so.

How does one learn procrastination? How does one learn any behavior? Through reinforcement and punishment, of course. If a certain pattern of behavior produces positive results, then that behavior is going to be repeated more often than similar behavior that does not produce results. In theory, punishment discourages one repeating certain patterns of behavior (if punishment is ill-thought out or doesn’t explain why the subject is being punished, then the undesired behavior will persist and everyone will just get more stressed out). Therefore, if the results of procrastination produce something that is perceived as rewarding, then it is going to persist. Why would procrastination be rewarding? Well, the last minute rush of meeting a deadline is enjoyable for some, especially if the results are favorable.

There is more to learning than just reward and punishment, however. There is a physiological component that I think shouldn’t go overlooked.

The human brain is a complex mass of interconnected pathways, each associated with some process or another, all of them plastic enough that they can adjust to some degree in order to acclimate to changing circumstances. If a specific pathway or set of pathways is used often, then that pathway will gain new connections, and consequently gain strength as a neural process. Also, the more a thought pattern is repeated and strengthened, the greater the likelihood one will immediately default to that neural pattern instead of another one when making a decision.

Incidentally, the brains ability to strengthen and modify neural connections allows it to reassign skills to different parts of the brain, allowing stroke victims to relearn basic skills they might have otherwise lost. It also explains why people who “know” better develop substance dependencies.

For example, if someone usually plays video games rather than study for a class, their neural patterns concerning video games are going to be stronger than their patterns that concern studying, which means that they are more likely to make the decision to play video games first (perhaps they will come up with a good rationalization, but rationalization is usually just a person’s justifications for an emotional choice that they have already made).

The more reinforced a behavior is, the more one is motivated to choose it. For the most part, we are motivated by that which either fills a biological need or produces results that we find psychologically fulfilling. These involve the same parts of the brain, for the record, but the secondary psychological needs (such as money) are the results of classical conditioning (learning to associate a new stimulus with preexisting reactions). This is a gross oversimplification, by the way.

Social influences also are a major factor concerning human behavior. In general, humans learn what is proper behavior from the observation or the instruction of others. Being social animals, human behavior is often influenced by the real or imagined presence of other humans and what expectations one thinks they might have of them. In ambiguous situations, we follow the leads of those who seem to know what is going on. When among peers, we act in accord with them in order to fit in and avoid being ostracized.

Therefore, it is not uncommon for justifications of behavior (to oneself or others) to end with the phrase “–but everyone else does/is doing it.”

Now, back to the individualist point of view. A person’s behavior is often a mix-bag of inherent predispositions, environmental conditioning, learned attitudes, and various other influences. How well is able to overcome or adjust with this influences to change behavior depends on one’s mindset and views on personality.

If one believes a trait like intelligence to be inherent, then they are going to treat a task they cannot complete as proof that they are not smart enough to complete it, so they then move on to some other task that they can complete. Someone who views intelligence as a  constantly development trait, however, will treat an incomprehensible task as a challenge, so they will actively work on learning how to deal with the task. Neither is particularly wrong in the viewpoint, but certain perspectives on life can provide more opportunities for progress than others.

One’s overall emotional state also influences one’s decisiveness (obviosuly). Sometimes repeated behaviors result from a root issue; sometimes it is just the external influence of the weather messing up one’s mood. Either way, the issue is not going to be resolved unless the individual becomes consciously aware that an issue exists.

There are many reasons that a person might procrastinate, and none of them are mutually exclusive. Perhaps one is more predisposed towards it than someone else, but that does not mean that it is inherent to them; anyone can learn not to procrastinate if they can find the motivation and strength to do so. Instead of thinking about how hard a project is, think about how easy small parts of it would be. Instead of putting it off until later, start now and keep coming back to work on it. Do not think that you are stupid; think that you just don’t know something yet.

Of course, there are most likely people with better advice for this sort of thing. Even some of the stuff here might be of help.

In the mean time, I am going to work on some art history notes and communication exchanges that I have been putting off in favor of reading Silmarillion fanfiction.

 

Sources: 

Last year’s Psychology 101 textbook and notes